Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Origen on the Ark's Animals' Poop

I have been reading some Origen lately, currently his Homilies on Genesis.  In his second homily, which is about Noah, he works through all of the details of the ark's construction in both the biblical account and in traditions handed down to fill in the gaps.  One major gap that Origen notices is that there is nothing to account for all of the excrement the animals would surely expel during their tenure upon the boat.  He explains this absence as follows,
Certainly since Scripture related nothing about the places which we said were set apart for the excrement of the animals, but tradition preserves some things, it will appear opportune that silence has been maintained on this about which reason may sufficiently teach of its importance.  And because it could less worthily be fitted to a spiritual meaning, rightly, therefore, Scripture, which rather fits its narratives to allegorical meanings, was silent about this. (Genesis Homily 2; trans. Ronald E. Heine, p. 75).  
The last sentence gives Origen's operating assumption about scripture: that it is made to be allegorized; anything that might fit a literal interpretation but not an allegorical one has been omitted - though he admits there are some traditions that try to close the gap.  

Ultimately, however, you just can't spiritualize crap.  

Wednesday, October 22, 2014

God is Not Male according to Arnobius

Reading through Christian works from the 2nd to 4th century can often be mind-numbingly boring, but every so often, one comes across a gem.  In a much earlier post, I noted Tertullian's surprising call for tolerance of other religions - especially from a person whose own religion (emergent Christianity) was not well tolerated.

Today, reading Arnobius's screed against pagan religion, he offers an interesting statement about God's gender: he claims Christians refer to God in the masculine manner out of custom or habit of speech - not as a reflection of God's nature:
And yet, that no thoughtless person may raise a false accusation against us, as though we believed God whom we worship to be male - for this reason, that is, that when we speak of Him we use a masculine word, - let him understand that it is not the sex which is expressed, but His name, and its meaning according to custom, and the way in which we are in the habit of using words [alt. with familiarity of speech]. For the deity is not male, but His name is of the masculine gender. (Arnobius, adversus Gentes 3.8)

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

Shana Tova!

Here is my favorite Rosh HaShanah tradition:

Journey to the End of the Earth

I am pleased to announce that Illinois College has approved the proposal submitted by Emily Adams (in French) and myself to take students to hike the Camino de Santiago de Compostela (the Way of St. James) in France in Spain next summer.

The travel course - or in Illinois College's parlance, "Breakaway" - is called

"Journey to the End of the Earth: Hiking the Way of St. James in France and Spain"

I am very excited to have this opportunity to lead this trip.  Here is a description:

Hiking the Camino de Santiago de Compostela – the Way of St. James – has recently become the most recognizable and most traveled pilgrimage in modern Christianity.  While recently touted as a symbol for European unity, the Camino has a long history and provides extensive opportunities to see medieval churches, castles, palaces, ancient ruins, as well as stunning views of the countryside.  Hiking the Camino offers a multifaceted experience.  This trip would be ideal for student-athletes looking for a physical challenge, language students who want to test their French and/or Spanish, and those interested in the history, religious landscape, and cultures of southern France and northern Spain.  While officially a Roman Catholic pilgrimage route, today one can also find Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, and atheists from around Europe and the world walking the “Way.”  The reasons why so many people take such a pilgrimage are varied, from seeking a religious experience to losing weight; nonetheless, most seek some sort of personal transformation. 

            In this BreakAway course, students will encounter their peers from multiple religious and cultural backgrounds from around the world, who tend to walk the Camino during the summer months.  Our trip will break into two roughly equal parts.  First we will walk the “Le Puy,” a route in Southern France.   On this part of the journey, students will see the French countryside, local farms, old Gothic churches, and a Roman ruin.  Then we will turn our attentions to Galicia in Spain, walking the last portion of the French Way leading into Compostela.  This is the most-walked part of the Camino, making it a prime opportunity for students to mingle with people of all ages from other countries.  Students will also see the extensive French influence along this route in terms of the Gothic architecture of churches, which made it into Spain with the medieval pilgrims themselves.  In both France and Spain, students will have the opportunity to share in common meals with other pilgrims, as well as partake of the local cuisine.  Since this is the time when large numbers of students from around Europe, Latin America, and Asia walk the Camino, our students will meet and interact with people their own age from many different countries.   It will be a truly international experience.

The reference to the "End of the Earth" refers to the final stop many pilgrims often make on the coast at Finisterre (literally, the end of the earth).

If you are an Illinois College student, and are interested in joining us next summer, please contact either Emily Adams or myself.

If you would like to learn more about the BreakAway program, learn how to apply to a BreakAway, and see what BreakAways have been offered in the past, please visit here.

Monday, July 7, 2014

A Review of Seth Schwartz's latest

I just saw this positive review of Seth Schwartz's latest book, The Ancient Jews from Alexander to Muhammad, a condensation of his book, Imperialism and Jewish Society.  Imperialism and Jewish Society should be required reading of any scholar of ancient Judaism, ancient Christianity, and Roman history.

Thursday, July 3, 2014

Dangerous Literature

Though not directly discussing the Bible or ancient texts more generally, there was a review article in the Chronicler of Higher education discussing "When Literature was Dangerous."  The example used there is James Joyce's Ulysses, which used to be banned in the U.S. and England until the 1930s.  In the U.S. today, however, when very little is actually censured, there appears to be very little dangers in reading and writing.  At the same time, when anything goes, does anything matter?  Individual institutions may issue a ban, but there is no force behind it like there used to be.  Whereas writers in other, more totalitarian states, often risk imprisonment and execution for their work.  Where nothing goes, does everything matter?

This, ultimately, raises a different issue than usually addressed in our dusty discussions of what something meant in antiquity or even how it has been received later.  It is not even limited to questions of cui bono? That is, who benefits from something being written.  The question is what's at stake?! And what has the writer risked?

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

"Vanishing Jews of Antiquity" by Adele Reinhartz

In the Marginalia, Adele Reinhartz has a short article critiquing the recent growing tendency to translate Ioudaioi as "Judeans" rather than "Jews," the end of which she cites the most authoritative of sources to indicate when "Judean" (or "Judaean" for you Brits) should be retained:

Let us restore Judean to its primary geographical meaning, as pertaining to the region of Judea and its residents. Political designations such as the Judean People’s Front, the People’s Front of Judea, the Judean Popular People’s Front, or the Popular Front of Judea would also be appropriate, as per one authoritative source (see Monty Python’s Life of Brian). Let us not make the mistake of defining Jews only in religious terms. Let us rather understand the term Jew as a complex identity marker that encompasses ethnic, political, cultural, genealogical, religious and other elements in proportions that vary among eras, regions of the world, and individuals. Let us not rupture the vital connection — the persistence of identity — between ancient and modern Jews. And let those who nevertheless elect to (mis)use Judean to translate all occurrences of ioudaiosjustify their usage beyond merely footnoting others who have done so.

Friday, June 20, 2014

He's Not the Messiah; He's a Very Naughty Boy

Mark Goodacre has posted about his attendance of the conference on Monty Python's Life of Brian currently being held at King's College, London.  "Jesus and Brian: Or, What Have the Pythons Ever Done for Us?" is investigating the intersection of the film and scholarship on the historical Jesus, New Testament, Christian origins, and the history of Judaism.  The first day finished with a Q&A with Terry Jones (who directed the film) and John Cleese.  I'm jealous of everyone there.

Here is an update from day 2 of the conference.

Monday, June 9, 2014

Linguistic Pluralism in First-Century Palestine

In the wake of "what language did Jesus speak?" (Aramaic, Hebrew, with a dash of Greek?) debate, Seth Sanders offers a more complex picture of the linguistic landscape of first-century Palestine (and how searches of monolinguistic purity is a red herring and largely ideologically charged religiously and politically). 

Check out his Religion Dispatches here.

Thursday, May 29, 2014

Hurtado Reviews Ehrman's Latest, How Jesus Became God

I just saw that Larry Hurtado has a good-length initial review of Bart Ehrman's new book, How Jesus Became God, on his blog here.  He says he will have a fuller review in Christian Century.  I haven't read Ehrman's newest, but the review seemed fairly balanced.

Sunday, May 25, 2014

Religion Courses this Fall at Illinois College

I recently posted information about my fall courses at my new institution, Illinois College, but thought I should inform people also of those taught by my new religion colleagues: Caryn Riswold and Paul Spalding.

So, in addition to my three courses:

Rel 111: Hebrew Bible / Old Testament
Rel 189: Abrahamic Faiths
Rel 335: Sexuality in the Bible

Caryn Riswold will be offering:

Rel 104: Questions of Christianity
Rel 260: Religion and Literature
Rel 371: Women, Race, and Theology

While Paul Spalding will be offering:

Rel 130 QF: LC Quest of Forever: Religions
Rel 188: Religious Traditions of South and East Asia
Rel 322: China: History and Religion

So if you are a student enrolling in Illinois College next fall, keep some of these courses in mind!

Thursday, May 22, 2014

WWUD? What Would Ulysses Do?

I must have passed this passage by before, but today it jumped out at me: according to Hippolytus Ulysses (a.k.a. Odysseus), the trickster par excellence (though Jacob gives him a run for his money) is a model for the Christian resisting the temptation of the siren call of heresy.  He writes (using the most available, ANF translation):
The pupils of these men, when they perceive the doctrines of the heretics to be like unto the ocean when tossed into waves by violence of the winds, ought to sail past in quest of the tranquil haven.  For a sea of this description is both infested with wild beasts and difficult of navigation, like, as we may say, the Sicilian (Sea), in which the legend reports were Cyclops, and Charybdis, and Scylla, and the rock of the Sirens.  Now, the poets of the Greeks allege that Ulysses sailed through (this channel), adroitly using (to his own purpose) the terribleness of these strange monsters.  For the savage cruelty (in the aspect) of these towards those who were sailing through was remarkable. The Sirens, however, singing sweetly and harmoniously, beguiled the voyagers, luring, by reason of their melodious voice, those who heard it, to steer their vessels towards (the promontory).  The (poets) report that Ulysses, on ascertaining this, smeared with wax the ears of his companions, and, lashing himself to the mast, sailed, free of danger, past the Sirens, hearing their chant distinctly.  And my advice to my readers is to adopt a similar expedient, viz., either on account of their infirmity to smear their ears with wax, and sail (straight on) through the tenets of the heretics, not even listening to (doctrines) that are easily capable of enticing them into pleasure, like the luscious lay of the Sirens, or, by binding one's self to the Cross of Christ, (and) hearkening with fidelity (to His words), not to be distracted, inasmuch as he has reposed his trust to Him who ere this he has been firmly knit, and (I admonish that man) to continue steadfastly (in this faith). (Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies 7.1)
Firstly, I typically find these old translations (such as the ANF series) to be rather stilted and wooden.  But this passage has some striking phrases with a poet's ear (note several alliterations) and a storyteller's drama (as in the choice of quite striking, enticing verbs). 

Despite it partly being a purplish passage, its metaphor is striking: it takes the story of Ulysses and transforms it into one of Christian emulation.  While the crafty Ithacan may be a hero in the Odyssey, by the time one reaches Roman writings - such as the Aeneid, here in evidence since it is then that the Sicilian connection to his wanderings is made - his wanderings are truly errant as his distinctive trait of cunning becomes is devalued into a flaw. 

Yet his seamen become regular Christians, whether beginners, catechumens, or something else (not uneducated, to be sure, since they would not be reading the tract) - they should, in fact, not even read this work to be tempted by siren call of heresy.  While Ulysses represents an advanced or strong Christian, and the mast becomes the cross through which he can discern the song's melodies and harmonies distinctly without being tempted by them.

Monday, May 19, 2014

My Fall Courses at Illinois College

For any students of Illinois College who happen upon this website, especially those unsure about what to take next fall, I thought I would post my courses in the Department of Philosophy and Religion.  I will be teaching:

Rel 111: Old Testament / Hebrew Bible - RG:

Registrar's Description: The Old Testament (or Hebrew Bible) records the stories, history, and wisdom of Ancient Israel; this collection of documents is one of the foundations of Western civilization. This course will introduce a variety of reading methodologies to students and use them to examine these texts. Special emphasis will be given to historical analysis: tracing the Bible's development over time and situating it in its Ancient Near Eastern context. We will also consider how these texts have been received and interpreted in modern contexts. (General Education pre-2012 = Religious & Philosophical Issues and Global Issues; Post 2012 BLUEprint = Social, Spriitual & Philosophical Issues, Ethical & Responsible Action, Speaking Extensive, Writing Extensive)
Meets: MTHF 10:00-10:50 a.m.

Rel 189: Abrahamic Faiths - GR

Registrar's Description: (Global Issues & Cultural Awareness requirement) (Religious & Philosophical Issues requirement) In the aftermath of 9/11, learning about Islam and its relationship to Judaism and Christianity has become very important. All three religions regard Abraham as a spiritual ancestor, revere the Hebrew Bible / Old Testament, and share an intertwined history. But while they have similarities, they also have significant differences. This course will introduce students to the scripture, interpretation, theology, and practices of Judaism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam via field trips and experiential learning. (General Education pre-2012 = Global Issues & Cultural Awareness, Religious & Philosophical Issues; Post 2012 BLUEprint = Social, Spiritual & Philosophical Issues, Global Awareness, Writing Extensive, Connected Course which can be -- if all requirements met -- connected to ED 203, EN 173, EN 358)

Meets: TH 12:00-1:40 p.m.

Rel 335: Sexuality in the Bible - HR

Registrar's Description: 
The role and place of women in the cultures of biblical Israel and the New Testament world have been the subject of increasing debate in recent decades. Were women more-or-less chattel or did they have power and influence in the public sphere? What was women’s role in the religious realm? Did women’s situation improve in the Greco-Roman world and in the New Testament? Did Paul support women in ministry or did he try to limit their authority in the church? These topics are significant because how they are answered has important implications for women in traditions that cite biblical models as authoritative or a guide for modern conduct. (General Education pre-2012 = Humanities, Religious & Philosophical Issues; Post 2012 BLUEprint = Connected Course which can be -- if all requirements met -- connected to GW 101)

Meets: MWF 2:40-3:50 p.m.

Have a great summer and see you in the fall!

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Illinois College

Now that the school year is over, I thought I would publicly announce that I will leaving the fine faculty of the Department of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Mississippi and be joining the fine faculty of the Department of Philosophy and Religion of Illinois College this fall as a visiting assistant professor.  I appreciate the University of Mississippi giving a place to work, think, research, and develop my courses this past year, and now I look forward to the new challenges and opportunities that await at Illinois College.

Monday, May 12, 2014

Carr on Calaway: Thoughts on the Sabbath / Sanctuary Relationship in H

I have known for a while now that David M. Carr's 2011 book, The Formation of the Hebrew Bible, included most likely the very first citation of anything I wrote - in this case, my dissertation.  Luckily, this past year, someone bought me a copy of the book (it is a bit pricy), and I have been slowly working through it.  I finally got the part where he discusses the implications of my work on the relationship between the Sabbath and the Sanctuary (in the Hebrew Bible, the Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice, and the Epistle to the Hebrews) specifically for how I characterize the Holiness materials.  He writes:

Consider, for example, the strong focus in H materials (as in Ezekiel) on Sabbath that has been outlined with particular clarity in a recent dissertation by Jared Calaway.  Resonating with similar Sabbath foci in Ezekiel, Exod 31:12-17 makes the Sabbath "covenant" a central focus of the P Sinai episode, applying to it concepts of profanation previously reserved for the sanctuary. The H cultic calendar opens with an introductory mention of Sabbath (Lev 23:3), and concludes with a focus on the festivals of the seventh month (the festival of trumpets [Rosh Hashanah], Yom Kippur, and Sukkoth; Lev 23:23-43).  Finally, the Jubilee legislation in Leviticus 24 extends the Sabbath concept to the land as well, reconfiguring earlier regulations about leaving land fallow (Exod 23:10-11) and slave and debt release (Exod 21:2-6; Deut 15:1-18) so that the new law enjoins leaving the land fallow every seven years (Lev 25:3-7) and forgiving debts and freeing Hebrew slaves every forty-nine (another sort of Sabbath of Sabbaths; Lev 25:8-55). H concludes with an independent emphasis on the observance of these Sabbaths alongside reverence for the sanctuary (Lev 26:2; note also 19:30), actions that lead to secure life in the land. The exile is understood as a Sabbath for the land (Lev 26:34-35). 

As Calaway argues, this complex of texts reconfigures concepts of holiness that were particularly attached to the sanctuary so that they are linked in new ways with time.  The weekly Sabbath restores the individual and allows access to the sanctuary, the Yom Kippur "Sabbath of Sabbaths" purifies and thus restores the sanctuary, and the 49th Jubilee year (and exile land Sabbath) restores the land. Thus, a practice (Sabbath) that appears to have become particularly prominent during exile (see, e.g., Ezekiel) becomes a prism for a new understanding of concepts of holiness once attached to the (now destroyed) temple in Jerusalem. Much as Gen 12:1-3 and Second Isaiah represent different reconceptualizations of concepts once attached to the Davidic monarchy, H represents a seemingly exilic, Sabbath-focused reconceptualization of concepts of holiness once more exclusively attached to the Jerusalem sanctuary and its priesthood. (p. 302)

He goes one to discuss how this particular profile has convinced him that this "H" reconceptualization likely originated in exile (rather than post-exile).  For all of this, he relies upon my dissertation; nonetheless, all of my discussion of the holiness legislation and expansions appear in my book (though, due to some revising, not all in the same place - thus, the land materials appear when I discuss the promised land/Sabbath-rest passage in Hebrews 3-4, instead of being a part of my general Hebrew Bible discussion as in the dissertation).  Anyway, I want to thank David Carr publicly for the very positive shout-out in his immense book.

Sunday, May 11, 2014

Quote of the Day: Jesus in Chicago

So, for Mother's Day, we've watched several musicals in a row.  One of them was Chicago.  In it, Billy Flynn, the unscrupulous lawyer who can get your off on murder (played by Richard Gere in the film version) says:

"I don't mean to toot my own horn, but if Jesus Christ lived in Chicago today, and he had come to me and he had five thousand dollars, let's just say things would have turned out differently."


Tuesday, April 29, 2014

Keeping up with the Jesus Wife Fragment

In response to my last post, Mike Grondin directed me to his website, where he is keeping a timeline of important events, posts, etc., related to the Jesus Wife Fragment.  You can find this resource here.  Thanks for passing this along!

Monday, April 28, 2014

Two Recent Thoughtful Responses to Jesus Wife Fragment

There has been a lot of recent buzz about the Jesus Wife Fragment again.  So much so that it is difficult to keep track - especially if you are busy teaching and researching other things.  But I think there are two recent thoughtful responses to read.  The first is Caroline Schroeder's interview with Anthony LeDonne (here), in which she discusses why she thinks it is a forgery in the aftermath of Christian Askeland's analysis of the companion fragment from the Lycopolitan Gospel of John.  The second post is one by April DeConick, who has - by and large - remained out of the free-for-all fray until now.  Her post, however, is a series of questions that gets at the methodological assumptions we are making in asserting the fragment a forgery or not.  There is so much out there at the moment that a roundup of posts would be ridiculously large, a catalogue of ships for the Jesus Wife Fragment.  I think, however, that if one reads these two posts and follow some of their links back, one will be by and large caught up in the discussion and know what questions perhaps remain unanswered.